A solution to the ppx versioning problem

Ppx is a preprocessing system for OCaml where one maps over the OCaml abstract syntax tree (AST) to interpret some special syntax fragments to generate code.

Ppx rewriters get to work on the same AST definition as the compiler, which has many advantages:

  • The AST corresponds (almost) exactly to the OCaml language. This is not completely true as the AST can represent programs that you can’t write, but it’s quite close.

  • Given that the compiler and pre-processor agree on the data-type, they can communicate between each other using the unsafe [Marshal] module, which is a relatively cheap and fast way of serializing and deserializing OCaml values.

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Observations of a functional programmer

I was recently invited to do the keynote at the Commercial Users of Functional Programming workshop, a 15-year-old gathering which is attached to ICFP, the primary academic functional programming conference.

You can watch the whole video here, but it’s a bit on the long side, so I thought an index might be useful. (Also, because of my rather minimal use of slides, this is closer to a podcast than a video…)

Anyway, here are the sections:

Hope you enjoy!

What the interns have wrought, 2016

Now that the interns have mostly gone back to school, it’s a good time to look back at what they did while they were here. We had a bumper crop — more than 30 dev interns between our London, New York and Hong Kong offices — and they worked on just about every corner of our code-base.

In this post, I wanted to talk about just one of those areas: building efficient, browser-based user interfaces.

Really, that’s kind of a weird topic for us. Jane Street is not a web company, and is not by nature a place that spends a lot of time on pretty user interfaces. The software we build is for our own consumption, so the kind of spit and polish you see in consumer oriented UIs are just not that interesting here.

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Unraveling of the tech hiring market

Recruiting talented people has always been challenging.

In some years that meant competing with a hot new company that aggressively courted every fresh graduate with promises of stock options and IPO glory.  In other years there wasn’t a specific company so much as an entire rising industry looking for people (I’m looking at you cloud services, driverless cars, and peer-to-peer sharing).  Either way, we understood the yearly back and forth.  Our job was to explain to candidates how we stacked up, and more importantly, why a career at Jane Street might be the right choice for many of them.

But this year I got to learn a new name for a new challenge.  “Unraveling”.

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Do you love dev tools? Come work at Jane Street.

In the last few years, we’ve spent more and more effort working on developer tools, to the point where we now have a tools-and-compilers group devoted to the area, for which we’re actively hiring.

The group builds software supporting around 200 developers, sysadmins and traders on an OCaml codebase running into millions of lines of code. This codebase provides the foundation for the firm’s business of trading on financial markets around the world.

Software that the group develops, much of which is written in-house, includes:
– build, continuous integration and code review systems;
– preprocessors and core libraries;
– editor enhancements and integration.

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Let syntax, and why you should use it

Earlier this year, we created a ppx_let, a PPX rewriter that introduces a syntax for working with monadic and applicative libraries like Command, Async, Result and Incremental. We’ve now amassed about six months of experience with it, and we’ve now seen enough to recommend it to a wider audience.

For those of you who haven’t seen it, let syntax lets you write this:

  1. let%bind <var> = <expr1> in <expr2>

instead of this:

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ppx_core: context-free rewriters for better semantics and faster compilation

At Jane Street, we have always been heavy users of pre-processors, first with camlp4 and now ppx. Pre-processing makes the infrastructure a bit more complex, but it save us a lot of time by taking care of a lot of tedious boilerplate code and in some case makes the code a bit prettier.

All in all, our standard set has 19 rewriters:

  • ppx_assert
  • ppx_bench
  • ppx_bin_prot
  • ppx_compare
  • ppx_custom_printf
  • ppx_enumerate
  • ppx_expect
  • ppx_fail
  • ppx_fields_conv
  • ppx_here
  • ppx_inline_test
  • ppx_js_style*
  • ppx_let
  • ppx_pipebang
  • ppx_sexp_conv
  • ppx_sexp_message
  • ppx_sexp_value
  • ppx_typerep_conv
  • ppx_variants_conv

These rewriters fall into 3 big categories:

  1. type driven code generators: ppx_sexp_conv, ppx_bin_prot, …
  2. inline tests and benchmarks: ppx_inline_test, ppx_expect, ppx_bench
  3. convenience: ppx_sexp_value, ppx_custom_printf, …

The first category is the one that definitely justify the use of pre-processors, until we get something better in the language itself.

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Seven Implementations of Incremental

We finally got a decent recording of one of my favorite talks. This one is about our Incremental library (which I wrote about here), and in particular about the story of how we got to the present, quite performant, implementation.

It’s not clear from the talk, but the work on this library wasn’t done by me: The initial version was implemented by Stephen Weeks and Milan Stanojevic, and most of the intermediate versions were implemented by Nick Chapman and Valentin Gatien-Baron.

The high quality org-mode slides, though, are all me.

OCaml 4.03: Everything else

In my previous post I wrote about Flambda, which is the single biggest feature coming to OCaml in this release. In this post, I’ll review the other features of 4.03 that caught my eye.

Inline records

Variants are my favorite thing about OCaml, and in this release, they’re getting better. You’ve always been able to define variants with multiple arguments, e.g.:

  1. type shape =
  2. | Circle of float * float * float
  3. | Rect of float * float * float * float

But, as with this example, it can sometimes be a little hard to figure out what the meaning of the individual fields are, since they don’t have labels. We can make this better by replacing our multi-argument variants with single argument variants containing approriately named records, as follows.

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A better inliner for OCaml, and why it matters

OCaml 4.03 is branched and a first release candidate is imminent, so it seems like a good time to take stock of what’s coming.

This post will focus on just one of those features: Flambda, a new IR (intermediate representation) in the depths of the compiler designed to allow for better inlining, paired with a set of optimizations leveraging that IR.

Why inlining matters

If your expectations about inlining come from a language like C, you might not be all that excited by Flambda. In C, after all, the benefits of inlining are relatively small, mostly allowing one to avoid function call overhead. That’s useful, but has limited impact.

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